Figure 7

Figure 7. This female was badly wounded on her flanks, tail, head, and face during a series of intense aggressive conflicts among adult females that preceded a permanent social group fission. While some permanent fissions are peaceful and gradual, the one involving this female occurred over the course of only two weeks, and at least 3 infants are suspected to have died as a result of the aggression, with numerous females wounded. Conspecifics represent not only social resources, but serious social competitors: animals living in social groups must constantly balance the benefits of group living against the costs. Photo credit: A. Catherine Markham.

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